The Museum of the Province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam was established on July 31, 1915 under the name of the Atjeh Museum led by F. Stammeshous and the inauguration of its opening when it was carried out by the Civil Governor and Military General H.N.A. Swart. At the beginning of the building the Museum was only in the form of Rumoh Aceh, which was a modification of a traditional Aceh house building originating from the Aceh Pavilion at the Colonial Exhibition (De Koloniale Testooteling) which was held between 13 August-15 November 1914. In addition to exhibiting various kinds of private collections FWStammeshous (Curator of the Atjeh Museum), the Aceh Pavilion at that time also exhibited a variety of heirlooms from Acehnese dignitaries so that the Pavilion appeared as the most complete pavilion and obtained 4 gold medals, 11 silver medals, 3 bronze medals and award certificates as the best pavilion . For this success F.W.Stammeshous proposed to the Governor of Aceh H.N.A.Swart that the Pavilion be brought back to Aceh to become the Atjeh Museum which was then inaugurated on July 31, 1915 in Banda Aceh.
After Indonesia gained independence, the operationalization of the Museum of Aceh alternately was organized by the Regional Government of II Banda Aceh until 1969, the Board of Trustees of Cluster Iskandarmuda (Baperis) until 1975, Ministry of Education and Culture until 2002, and now in accordance with Government Regulation Number 25 Year 2000 concerning the authority of the government and provincial authority as an autonomous region (Article 3 paragraph 5 point 10f), the operationalization of the Museum becomes the authority of the Provincial Government of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Based on the Governor’s Decree Number 10 of 2002 dated February 2, 2002, the status of the Museum of Aceh became the UPTD of the Museum of the Province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam within the Office of Culture.